The Foreign Exchange (FX) market has been shifting towards a fully electronic marketplace which is fast, efficient and low cost. Nearly $6.6 trillion/day of trading (April 2019), it is a high volume / low margin business for banks and liquidity providers alike.
Liquidity fragmentation, the phenomenon of multi-listing of an instrument on different venues, creates deeper and broader markets and lowers transaction costs. Despite the benefits, it has become a major challenge to market participants from buy-side to sell- side institutions, as it has led to a more complex trading landscape. Some of the tools used to address this problem have been in place for a long period, while others are new to the market.
In an era where the risk-free interest rate never hovers above the low single-digits, low investment returns have become the norm. Lowering the cost of investment with efficient execution and streamlining costs is the most certain way to preserve overall investment performance. Managing the cost of execution is far more deterministic than an investment strategy outcome.
Version 1 453 View(s) 503 Download(s) 2.83 MB The Role of Machine Learning and AI in trading and execution. WHY AI AND WHY NOW? Interest in Artificial Intelligence (AI) is exploding and all businesses consider it a prime futurereshaping initiative. To understand AI we can first look at the context of Information Technology (IT) history and evolution: IT progress is … Read More
Version 1 115 View(s) 269 Download(s) 219 KB Dark Pool Routing Introduction It is fast becoming accepted wisdom that systemic change has occurred in the Capital Markets. We hear increasingly strident voices telling us that markets are too fragmented; best execution is elusive and investors are being disadvantaged. One of the results of this popular criticism is that regulators, who … Read More
Version 1 80 View(s) 469 Download(s) 480 KB Introduction Trading systems are becoming increasingly fast, complex and interconnected. The US market crash of May 6th 2010, also known as the „Flash Crash‟, was swift, deep and propagated to all open markets and asset classes. Fortunately, both the Asian and European Markets were closed. However, market participants are not the only … Read More
Version 1 86 View(s) 682 Download(s) 2.03 MB Executive Summary This paper discusses the evolving challenge of liquidity fragmentation as a result of business, technology and regulatory pressures within capital markets. Fragmentation has accelerated in the past 24 months in both the US and European equities markets due to the implementation of RegNMS and MIFID. However, the rapid growth of … Read More
Version 1 94 View(s) 477 Download(s) 1.82 MB Introduction The electronic trading market has entered into a new evolutionary phase. This shift is expressed by the change in the nature of liquidity, namely decentralization for asset classes which were typical y organized in a centralized model, whilst creation and consolidation of electronic venues for asset classes which were traditionally OTC … Read More
Version 1.0.0 128 View(s) 447 Download(s) 499 KB Introduction The Foreign Exchange (FX) market has become a de facto investment asset class, with a high level of liquidity and rapidly increasing trading volumes. According to a research paper by Greenwich Associates, dated May 2008, total cross border FX trading was $99,000bn in 2007, from $71,000bn in 2006. This represents 36% … Read More
Version 1 407 View(s) 364 Download(s) 1.09 MB Introduction Liquidity fragmentation resulting from regulatory changes such as Reg. NMS (in the US) or MiFID (in Europe), combined with the aggressive competition between traditional exchanges and alternative trading venues, is making current execution algorithms “obsolete”. Therefore, are financial institutions spending mil ions on antiquated technology? This discussion paper provides Quod Financial’s … Read More